Gonorrhea is exclusively transmitted sexually, genital-to-genital contact; but can also be transmitted oral-to-genital or anal-to-genital. In females the disease can spread from the genitals to the rectal area. It can be spread to the newborn in the form of ophthalmia neonatorum through vaginal birth.
AGE is the most important factor. Statistically, sexually active teens, young adults, and African Americans are at the highest risk. The majority of those who have contracted this disease are under the age of 20.
Girls who are prepubescent the two most common symptoms is vaginitis and vulvitis. There may be signs of infection, or vaginal discharge, dysuria and swollen, reddened labia.
The factor of concern, most adolescent females show no signs or symptoms. When they DO have symptoms they are less pronounced than those of men. In women there may be some cervical discharge, but usually it is minimal of lacking altogether. Irregularity of the menses may be the presenting symptom or complaints of pain within the pelvis.
In rectal gonorrhea, the symptoms may not be asymptomatic or the opposite with severe discharge, pain and blood in the stool. There may be rectal itching, fullness, pressure, and pain…as well as diarrhea.
Since Gonorrhea is a highly transmittable disease all recent partners (30-days prior) should be reported, cultured, and examined. Most treatment failures occur due to reinfection.
Screening and Diagnosis
All pregnant women should be screened at the first appointment. Those women with risky behaviors indicated, should be re-screened at 36 weeks. The screening is done through “cultures”.
45% of those women who are found to have Gonorrhea also have Chlamydia. For both pregnant and non-pregnant women, the treatment should be cefixime in a single dose.
All women with co-existing syphilis infections should be treated as for syphilis. Penicillin is the preferred drug for treatment. The alternative (especially for those allergic to penicillin) is Doxycycline, Tetracycline, and erythromycin. Tetracycline and Doxycycline are contraindicated in pregnant.