Sexually Transmitted Infections – Part 1

Chlamydia Trachomatis

This is a highly transmittable disease. It is difficult to diagnose, and the symptoms are nonspecific. It is very expensive to culture.

It is important to identify this disease early. Without doing so and not getting treatment, it can lead to salpingitis or pelvic inflammatory disease.

It increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. If this disease has infected the cervix, it can cause a cervical inflammation leading to ulcerations…increasing the risk of HIV infection.
Women under the age of 20 are at highest risk for infection. They are 2 to 3 times more likely to have it.

Risk Factors:

Multiple partners
Not using barrier methods of birth control

Cervical cultures should be taken at the first prenatal visit. The use of silver nitrate on the newborn may not be sufficient to prevent the transmission of this disease from mother to infant. Early culture and treatment is a must.

Treatment

For cervical, urethral, and rectal infections: doxycycline or azithromycin.
If the woman is pregnant: erythromycin or amoxicillin.
If she has HIV, treatment would be the same as those without.

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Vaccines

VACCINATIONS

LIST OF VACCINES ADMINISTERED THROUGH THE FIRST YEAR*

NEWBORN:
HepB (Hebatitis B)

Between 1 AND 3 Months:
Second injection of HepB

2 Months:
DTP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis); the IPV vaccine (polio); the Hib vaccine (Haemophilus influenzae type b); PCV (pneumococcal vaccine); and the first RV (rotavirus) vaccine, which is not an injection, but a liquid given by mouth.

4 months:
second RV (rotavirus vaccine), the second DTP injection, the second Hib vaccine, the second PCV injection and the second IPV injection.

Six Months:
The third DTP vaccine, the third Hib injection and the third PCV vaccine. At 6 months old, babies receive their third and final RV (rotavirus) vaccine

Between 6 and 18 months
Children also receive the third hepatitis B and IPV
Children 6 months and older receive the influenza vaccine seasonally.

12 Months
If there is a minimum of six months having passed since the previous DTP injection, babies can have their fourth DTP vaccine as early as 12 months.

Between 12 and 15 months:
MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) vaccine; the Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine; the fourth Hib injection; and the fourth PCV vaccine.

Children also receive two hepatitis A (HepA) vaccines between 12 and 23 months.

Q & A
Question: Can a baby’s immune system become compromised due to the multiple
injection of vaccines?

Answer: “The IOM report, published in 2002, concluded that there’s no evidence of a
connection between multiple vaccines and increased infection or autoimmune
disease (Shultz)”

Question: Does the MMR vaccine put my child at greater risk for autism?

Answer: Autism has been on the rise since 1970. It is now thought 1 in 110 children have autism. “Concern about a link between the MMR vaccine and autism began in 1998, after the British medical journal The Lancet published a study connecting the vaccine with autism (Offit).” Later studies repudiated the claims the study had made, these concluded that there is no connection between the vaccine and Autism. The questions arose due to Thimerosal (a mercury-based additive) being an ingredient in the MMR shot. Claims are that the vaccine does not contain this additive. Note: Thimerosal was removed after claims of this ingredient’s connection to Autism in vaccinated children.

How do Vaccines Work?

“A vaccine contains a killed or weakened part of a germ that is responsible for infection. Because the germ has been killed or weakened before it is used to make the vaccine, it can not make the person sick (NY State Department of Health)”.

From the CDC site; How Vaccines Work

From the CDC site; How Vaccines Work

 

 

When a person receives a vaccine, the body reacts by producing “antibodies”. Antibodies are the body’s defense mechanism, going to work when something “foreign” to the body enters. Once the antibody mechanism is triggered and the “foreign” invader (called an antigen) is fought off. Afterwards, the antibodies “remember” the antigen and the process it used to defend the body.

REFERENCES:

List of Infant Vaccine Shots by Month Through Age One. http://www.livestrong.com/article/216552-monthly-list-of-infant-vaccine-shots-before-age-one/ Last Updated: Jan 25, 2014 Kristen Fisher.

Can getting more than one vaccination at once overload my child’s immune system? http://www.babycenter.com/404_can-getting-more-than-one-vaccination-at-once-overload-my-ch_11452.bc Laura Shultz, n.d.

Does the MMR vaccine put my child at greater risk for autism? http://www.babycenter.com/404_does-the-mmr-vaccine-put-my-child-at-greater-risk-for-autism_11518.bc Paul Offit

How do Vaccines Work? http://www.health.ny.gov/prevention/immunization/how_vaccines_work.htm Department of Health, State of New York.

Why are childhood vaccines so important? http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/howvpd.htm Center For Disease Control and Prevention, US Government.

*This is NOT a discussion of the pros and cons, just general information about when vaccines are recommended, and which ones.