Issues Part 3

What are the issues that affect Lakota Native women during pregnancy and childbirth in regards to: Racism, Sexism, and Oppression – Part 3

After years of encroachment upon traditional healing practices, the stage was set for an Eugenics movement. This movement “… in the 20th century began as a means of controlling the perceived increase in ‘degenerate’ population and maintaining or protecting hereditarily ‘fit’ members in society from being overrun by the genetically ‘unfit.’ (Forbes, 2)” or groups that were marginalized, such as Native Americans.

Initially, the population targeted was those with low intelligence and those with physical disabilities. But, soon it expanded to “ a program to implement ‘racial hygiene’ in the United States, eugenics essentially entailed taking the principle of natural selection and enforcing it by employing allegedly ‘scientific’ means (Forbes, 2)” The concern was that the white populace were being degraded by the influx of people with racial differences. The classifications included socio-economic, class, status and race.

…policies founded on eugenic theories (sic) started to emerge, forcing procedural sterilizations and other means of population control upon people believed to be unfit (Forbes, 2-3)”. In the late 60s and through the 70s the target was Native American people. Indian Health Services began a systematic sterilization policy.

Women would go to the I.H.S. hospital, told they needed a cesarean section (for a variety of reasons), anesthetized; and when they awoke, these women found they had been given a hysterectomy, which is what happened to my friend. She stated that she was not informed of the need for a hysterectomy. She had gone to deliver her baby, the doctors examined her and stated that she needed an emergency cesarean section. She awoke, finding that she had her uterus removed. My friend’s experience was not uncommon, “…in 1975 alone, some 25,000 Native American women were permanently sterilized – many after being coerced, misinformed, or threatened .

In 1990, a former nurse at I.H.S. reported that tubal ligations were used on women who did not want the surgical procedure. Birth control also was forced upon unsuspecting females such as Depo-Provera, without informed consent, and prior to the FDA having given its approval (this would include the mentally retarded ).

Health risks of the drug Depo-Provera are high in native populations due to Diabetes, obesity, and cigarette smoking. Many who were forced to have it or Norplant administered were not informed of the risk. A secondary aspect is the cultural issues. Irregular bleeding that is caused by these drugs can prevented participation in traditional spiritual practices.

In my own research of the issues of native women in the child-bearing years I was shocked by the high numbers of cesarean sections done on this sector of women. The rate of C-Sections nation-wide is 32.8%; whereas South Dakota is around 25.3%. But, I.H.S. rates are higher than the state average, last internet search showed it at 34%.

Why is this of concern? The health risks of women in the child-bearing years due to unnecessary surgery being conducted. Childbirth is treated by the modern medical doctors as though the baby a ‘disease’ that needs to be cut-out, rather than a natural biological reproductive process. Had the traditional practices of midwifery had been continued within the native culture, allowed to flourish, there would have been very few cesarean sections necessary in our modern times.

Other Factors Regarding Childbirth in Indian Country

Next below the black woman, the native woman is recorded as 2nd to the highest in infant mortality rates . This is due to living in rural areas with poor access to proper care during pregnancy. “Poverty is an important risk factor for poor health outcomes ”.

Compounding the issues mentioned above are those of teen and pre-teen births. A female who is younger than 18 or 19 years of age are not fully developed, in other words are still growing themselves. Teenagers tend to eat poorly, are more prone to drink alcohol, smoke, and take drugs during pregnancy.

Next: What are the issues that affect Lakota Native women during pregnancy and childbirth in regards to: Racism, Sexism, and Oppression – Part 4

Issues part 1

The issues that affect Lakota Native women during pregnancy and childbirth in regards to:
Racism, Sexism, and Oppression

In this report, I will discuss the diminishment of access to information for native female populations of traditional cultural / spiritual values regarding reproduction, healthy pregnancies, and child-birth. As well as cutting the ties to cultural education for young native females (and males/but not discussed herein) directly addressing gender-related socio-cultural information.
Today young native females in Lakota country find they are alienated from the cultural concepts of reproduction and childbirth practices that once were available from the elder women within their family groups.

The path of traditional information is fractured, if not completely broken in Lakota country. Also access to traditional midwifery is not available in many areas.

Young women find themselves (by necessity) having to deal with doctors and hospitals that are a part of the system of oppression that conquered their people and that had forced assimilation practices upon their elders. They have also heard about Eugenics Policies to eradicate native populations, by means of the sterilization policies enacted in the 70s through Indian Health Services.

Due to historical trauma, these young women find themselves re-living much of post-traumatic effects during the pregnancy time-period and at birth. The trauma affects the decision-making process as well.

Historical Background

Initial contact with European colonists was tenuous at best. The European white settlers had asserted its dominance from the onset of settlement. Through the lens of the European settlers, these indigenous people were inferior, only due to the differences in cultural systems of governance. Almost immediately the settlers asserted dominance and control over tribes in which they had initially contacted. The tribes were left with two choices: to conform or to resist.

The colonists viewed the encountered indigenous people as an inferior / savage group. This view was based upon the fact the tribes were not Christian (hence “savages”) and technologically not as advanced as their own (incoming) settler populations. The lens of the white populace was Eurocentric/ethnocentric due differences in ideological concepts such as the differences in view, regarding ownership of land.

The indigenous people did not cultivate the land in the same manner as the Europeans settlers. The settlers could not understand the concept of joint stewardship of lands by the native populous. In their ethnocentric mental lens white settlers conceived this ideology as a waste of good farming land, and of course their ideals were superior in that the land would produce food. Land to the settler, was a resource a non-movable commodity.

From this mental idea of superiority, the desire for lands in which to cultivate both their crops and cattle, the European settlers began to broker deals with nearby tribes through treaties . If they could not gain the land through a treaty, they forcibly took what they desired.

Next week: Part 2 – The issues that affect Lakota Native women during pregnancy and childbirth in regards to: Racism, Sexism, and Oppression.