Midwife Model of Care VS Hospital Model – Part 2

doula at work

Conclusions

The Medical model of care has been dominant for a century in the northern century. “By the 1920s the United States and Canada became the first societies in human history to do away with midwifery (186)”, only to learn decades later that women still wanted midwives and some would reinvent midwifery if necessary.

In the United States – our present times, only 10% of the babies delivered are born with the assistance of midwives. Whereas, in Western Europe and the rest of the world midwives attend the majority of the births. These nations have the lowest rates of maternal and newborn deaths.

There are some variances within the models of care. Some doctors now will practice according to the midwifery model of care. Some midwives, are employed by large hospital practices where the technological-medical model of care is the rule. They use the midwives for those women who desire midwifery care but the midwives in the medical model are pressured to work in the technological-medical model of care.
This information was taken from Ina May’s Guide to Childbirth. Ina May is an internationally known Midwife, who has delivered babies and written books on Midwifery and natural childbirth. She works at THE FARM, in Tennessee.

Midwife Model of Care VS Hospital Model – Part 1

doula at work

The Midwifery Model of Care

This ancient form of birthing care approaches the idea of birth as more holistic way of care-giving, recognizing the female power of creation. It also acknowledges the holistic view with a seamless unity of mind, body, and spirit; that mother and baby are inseparable units, birth is a normal healthy process.

Visits are much longer. The Midwife is attentive to the pregnant woman, answering her questions. Care-giving, education, counseling are all a part of the Midwife Model of care.

Nutrition is emphasized as the means for a healthy pregnancy, good birth, and strong thriving babies. Companionship during labor is considered important to minimize the use of technology to intervene in the process of birth.

The Midwifery Model has not time-constraint on the process of birth. Labor has its on rhythm, “…it can start and then stop, speed up or slow down and still be normal (Gaskin, 184)”. Midwives give continuous assistance throughout the duration of labor and delivery, and postpartum support after the baby is born. Women can move freely and eat freely throughout the process of labor.

Medical Hospital Model of Care

A product of the industrial revolution, and male derived, its basis is technology and medicine. It is assumed that the body is machine-like, full of short-comings or defects (some has stated child-birth as “pathological”). Pregnancy and labor are viewed as an illness, and that to prevent harm to the mother and baby, must be treated with drugs and/or medical equipment. Also, birth MUST take place within 24 hours.

Mind and body are separate entities. Women are consigned to the bed in a supine position, hooked up to electronic fetal monitors, intravenous tubes, and blood-pressure machines. Eating and drinking, after a certain point in the labor process, are not allowed. Analgesia is administered to ease labor pains since the Medical Model of Care deems pain as unacceptable.

Office visits during pregnancy are short, and questions are discouraged. The mother must take the back seat in her concerns during pregnancy, and passive role during labor. Women are treated homogeneously, with individuality considered unimportant.